Nucleic Acids Photo by: Andrzej Nucleic acids are a family of macromolecules that includes deoxyribonucleic acid DNA and multiple forms of ribonucleic acid RNA.
Movement Across Membranes 1 - Passive processes - require no expenditure of energy by a cell: The rate of diffusion is influenced by: This process requires the use of 'carriers' membrane proteins. In the example below, a ligand molecule e. This causes a conformational change or, in other words, an 'opening' in the protein through which a substance e.
Initially, the membrane transport protein also called a carrier is in its closed configuration which does not allow substrates or other molecules to enter or leave the cell. Next, the substance being transported small red spots binds to the carrier at the active site or binding site.
Then, on the inside of the cell, ATP Adenosine TriPhosphate binds to another site on the carrier and phosphorylates adds one of its phospate groups, or -PO4, to one of the amino acids that is part of the carrier molecule.
This attachment of a phosphate group to the carrier molecule causes a conformational change in or a change in the shape of the protein so that a channel opens between the inside and outside of the cell membrane.
Then, the substrate can enter the cell. As one molecule of substrate enters, the phosphate group comes off the carrier and the carrier again 'closes' so that no other molecules can pass through the channel.
Now the transport protein, or carrier, is ready to start the cycle again. More ATP must be made by glycolysis and the Kreb's cycle.
Cells require energy for active transport, synthesis, impulse conduction nerve cellscontraction muscle cellsand so on. An important source of energy for cells is glucose C6 H12O6: Then, cells can break down ATP as in this reaction: After all, an entire candy bar may contain only food Calories. The explanation lies in the capital C.
One food Calorie, spelled with a capital C, is times larger than one physiologist's calorie, spelled with a small c. The energy released in this reaction is used by cells for active transport, synthesis, contraction, and so on.
But, making ATP requires energy.
The breakdown of glucose does release energy. But, how, specifically, is the energy released in the breakdown of glucose used to make ATP. Oxidative phosphorylation produces lots of energy but requires hydrogen.
Where do the hydrogens come from?
Glycolysis involves the breakdown of glucose.Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products.
Nucleic acids are a family of macromolecules that includes deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and multiple forms of ribonucleic acid (RNA).DNA, in humans and most organisms, is the genetic material and represents a collection of instructions (genes) for making the organism. 2.
ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS - PROTEINS AND AMINO ACIDS Proteins. The proteins are among the most important constituents of all living cells and represent the largest chemical group in the animal body, with the exception of water; the whole fish carcass contains .
Oct 01, · This short video describes the structure and function of nucleic acids. Find more free tutorials, videos and readings for the science classroom at blog-mmorpg.com Nucleic Acid Structure and Function DNA polymers store hereditary information for each living organism.
The unique structure of a DNA polymer provides a template for identification and delivery of the information inside each gene and for accurate replication of DNA during cell division.
Function of Nucleic Acids The purpose of DNA is to act as a code or recipe for making proteins.
Proteins determine how an organism's body is built and how it functions, which is why DNA is often.